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备考丨小学英语期末考试知识点大全,超全整理!

时间:2018-12-23 00:49 点击:
(1) 有生命的东西的名词所有格: a) 单数后加

期末考试马上就要来了,作为学生家长,赶紧收藏这份小学英语最全知识点,为宝宝助力期末考试!

一、基础知识

1.字母:26个字母的大小写

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

2.语音:元音的发音

5个元音字母:A E I O U

12个单元音:

前元音:[i:] [] [e] []

中元音:[:] []

后元音:[ɑ:] [] [:] [u:] [] []

双元音(8个) 合口双元音[ai] [ei] [au] [u] [i] 集中双元音[i] [ε] [u]

3.词汇:词汇量,近反义词

4.句子:大小写,标点符号

二、语法知识

名词:名词单复数,名词的格

(一)名词单复数

一般情况,直接加-s,如:book-books, bag-bags, cat-cats, bed-beds

以s. x. sh. ch结尾,加-es,如:bus-buses, box-boxes, brush-brushes, watch-watches

以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变 y 为 i, 再加-es,如:family-families, strawberry-strawberries

以“f 或 fe”结尾,变 f 或 fe 为 v, 再加-es,如:knife-knives

不规则名词复数: man-men, woman-women, policeman-policemen, policewoman-policewomen, mouse-mice child-children, foot-feet, tooth-teeth, fish-fish, people-people, Chinese-Chinese, Japanese-Japanese

不可数名词的复数就是原形: paper,juice, water, milk, rice, tea

(二)名词的格

(1) 有生命的东西的名词所有格: a) 单数后加 's 如: Lucy's ruler, my father's shirt b) 以s 结尾的复数名词后加 ’ 如: his friends' bags c) 不以s 结尾的复数后加's children's shoes 并列名词中,如果把 's加在最后一个名词后,表示共有, 如: Tom and Mike's car 汤姆和迈克共有的小汽车 要表示所有物不是共有的,应分别在并列名词后加's, 如: Tom's and Mike's cars 汤姆和麦克各自的小汽车

(2) 表示无生命东西的名词通常用“of +名词”来表示所有关系: 如: a picture of the classroom a map of China

冠词:不定冠词,定冠词种类

(1) 不定冠词:a / an a unit / an uncle

元音开头的可数名词前用an :

an egg / an apple / an orange

(2) 定冠词the

the egg / the plane

2. 用法:

定冠词的用法:

特指某(些)人或某(些)物: The ruler is on the desk.

复述上文提到的人或物:He has a sweater. The sweater is new.

谈话双方都知道的人或物:The boys aren't at school.

在序数词前: John's birthday is February the second.

用于固定词组中: in the morning / afternoon / evening

不用冠词的情况:

专有名词前:China is a big country.

名词前有定语:this , that , my , your , some, any , no 等: This is my baseball.

复数名词表示一类人和事:Monkeys can't swim. They are teachers.

在节日,日期,月份,季节前:Today is Christmas Day. It's Sunday.

一日三餐前:We have breakfast at 6:30.

球类 棋类运动前:They often play football after class. He plays chess at home. * 但乐器前要用定冠词:I play the guitar very well.

学科名称前:My favorite subject is music.

在称呼或头衔的名词前:This is Mr Li.

固定词组中:at noon at night by bus

代词、形容词、副词

代词:人称代词,物主代词

备考丨小学英语期末考试知识点大全,超全整理!

形容词,副词:比较级,最高级

(一)、形容词的比较级

1. 形容词比较级在句子中的运用:

两个事物或人的比较用比较级,比较级后面一般带有单词 than。比较级前面可以用more, a little来修饰表示程度。than后的人称代词用主格(口语中可用宾格)。

2. 形容词加er的规则:

一般在词尾加er ; 以字母e 结尾,加r ; 以一个元音字母和一个辅音字母结尾,应双写末尾的辅音字母,再加er ; 以“辅音字母+y”结尾,先把y变i,再加er 。

3. 不规则形容词比较级:

good-better,

beautiful-more beautiful

(二)副词的比较级

1. 形容词与副词的区别(有be用形,有形用be;有动用副,有副用动)

⑴在句子中形容词一般处于名词之前或be动词之后

⑵副词在句子中最常见的是处于实义动词之后

2. 副词比较级的变化规则基本与形容词比较级相同(不规则变化:well-better, far-farther)

数词:序数词、基数词

(1) 1-20

one,two, three, our, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, nineteen, twenty

(2) 21-99先说“几十”,再说“几”,中间加连字符。

23→twenty-three,

34→thirty-four,

45→forty—five,

56→fifty-six,

67→sixty-seven,

78→seventy-eight,

89→eighty-nine,

91→ninety-one

(3) 101—999先说“几百”,再加and,再加末两位数或末位数;

586→five hundred and eighty-six,

803→eight hundred and three

(4) 1,000以上,先从右往左数,每三位数加一个“,”,第一个“,”前为thousand. 第二个“,”前为million,第三个“,”前为billion

1,001→ one thousand and one

18,423→ eighteen thousand four hundred and twenty-three

6,260,309→ six million two hundred and sixty thousand three hundred and nine

750,000,000,000→ seven hundred and fifty bilion

序数词

(1) 一般在基数词后加 th

eg. four→fourth, thirteen→thirteenth

(2) 不规则变化

one→first,

two→second,

three→third,

five→fifth,

eight→eighth,

nine→ninth,

twelve—twelfth

(3) 以 y 结尾的十位整数,变 y 为 ie 再加 th

twenty→twentieth,

forty→fortieth,

ninety→ninetieth

(4) 从二十一后的“几十几”直至“几百几十几”或“几千几百几十几”只将个位的基数词变为序数词。

twenty-first,

two hundred and forty-fifth

基数词

基数词转为序数词的口诀:

基变序,有规律,词尾加上-th.

一,二,三,特殊记,词尾字母 t, d, d.

八去t, 九去e, ve要用f替。

ty 将 y变成 i,th 前面有个 e.

若是碰到几十几,前用基来后用序。

介词:常用介词:in, on, at, behind等

1. at 表示时间概念的某一个点。(在某时刻、时间、阶段等)。

at 1:00 (dawn,midnight , noon) 在一点钟(黎明、午夜、中午)

2.on

1) 表示具体日期。

注:(1)关于"在周末"的几种表示法:

at (on) the weekend在周末---特指

at (on) weekends在周末---泛指

over the weekend在整个周末

during the weekend在周末期间 (2)在圣诞节,应说 at Christmas? 而不说 on Christmas?

2) 在(刚……)的时候

On reaching the city he called up his parents.

一到城里他就给父母打了一个电话。

3.in

1) 表示"时段"、"时期",在多数情况下可以和 during 互换,前者强调对比,后者强调持续。

in (during) 1988 (December, the 20th century) 在一九八八年(十二月、二十世纪)

动词:动词的四种时态

(1) 一般现在时:

一般现在时的构成

1. be动词:主语+be (am, is, are)+其它。如: I am a boy. 我是一个男孩。

2. 行为动词:主语+行为动词(+其它)。 如: We study English. 我们学习英语。

当主语为第三人称单数(he, she, it)时,要在动词后加"-s"或"-es"。如:Mary likes Chinese. 玛丽喜欢汉语。

动词+s的变化规则

1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:cook-cooks, milk-milks

2.以s. x. sh. ch. o 结尾,加-es,如:guess-guesses, wash-washes, watch-watches, go-goes

3.以“辅音字母+y 结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:study-studies

(2) 一般过去时:

动词过去式详解 动词的过去式的构成规则有:

A、规则动词

① 一般直接在动词的后面加ed:如 worked , learned , cleaned , visited

② 以e结尾的动词直接加d:如 lived , danced , used

③ 以辅音字母加y结尾的动词要改 y 为 i 再加 ed (此类动词较少)如 study – studied carry – carried worry – worried (注意play、stay不是辅音字母加 y ,所以不属于此类)

④ 双写最后一个字母(此类动词较少)如 stopped

B、不规则动词(此类词并无规则,须熟记)小学阶段要记住以下动词的原形和过去式:sing – sang , eat – ate ,

see – saw , have – had , do – did , go – went , take – took , buy – bought , get – got , read – read ,fly – flew , am/is – was ,

are – were , say – said , leave – left , swim – swam , tell – told , draw – drew , come – came , lose – lost , find – found , drink – drank , hurt – hurt , feel – felt

(3) 一般将来时:

基本结构:

①be going to + do;

②will+ do. be going to = will

I am going to go swimming tomorrow(明天). = I will go swimming tomorrow.

(4) 现在进行时: am,is,are+动词现在分词

动词现在分词详解 动词的ing形式的构成规则:

① 一般的直接在后面加上ing , 如doing , going , working , singing , eating

② 以e 结尾的动词,要先去e再加ing,如having , writing

③ 双写最后一个字母的(此类动词极少)有:running , swimming , sitting , getting

三、句法

1.陈述句

(1) 肯定句是指用肯定的语气来陈述的句子,如:

I'm a student. She is a doctor. He works in a hospital.

There are four fans in our classroom. He will eat lunch at 12:00. I watched TV yesterday evening.

(2) 否定句含有否定词或表示否定意义词的句子,如:

I'm not a student. She is not (isn't) a doctor.

He does not (doesn't) work in a hospital. There are not (aren't) four fans in our classroom.

He will not (won't) eat lunch at 12:00. I did not (didn't) watch TV yesterday evening.

2. 疑问句

一般疑问句是指询问事实的句子,此类句子必须用“yes",或“no”来回答。

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